Energy

368 Items

A view of the main conference hall

MSC / Kuhlmann

Analysis & Opinions - The Brookings Institution

Dispatch from Munich: The Trans-Atlantic Rift Persists Amid Weaknesses on Both Sides

| Feb. 18, 2019

The rift across the Atlantic is deep, with divergent American and European worldviews evident in back-to-back speeches by Chancellor Merkel and Vice President Mike Pence. Merkel delivered a passionate and energetic defense of multilateralism and shared values, leading to a standing ovation from an inspired audience who see her as the greatest defender of the liberal world order.

Analysis & Opinions - The New York Times

Rift Between Trump and Europe Is Now Open and Angry

| Feb. 17, 2019

The Europeans no longer believe that Washington will change, not when Mr. Trump sees traditional allies as economic rivals and leadership as diktat. His distaste for multilateralism and international cooperation is a challenge to the very heart of what Europe is and needs to be in order to have an impact in the world.

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Press Release - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School

New Report Focuses on NATO at Seventy: An Alliance in Crisis

| Feb. 14, 2019

As the 70th anniversary of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) approaches, the world’s oldest and most successful military alliance of democratic nations faces serious and complex challenges to its purpose, effectiveness, and unity in 2019. In a new report to be launched at the Munich Security Conference February 15, 2019, former U.S. Permanent Representatives to NATO Douglas Lute and Nicholas Burns highlight ten major challenges to NATO in a new report, NATO at Seventy: An Alliance in Crisis, and offer recommendations to bolster this critically important alliance.

The former defense secretary Jim Mattis, center, with NATO’s secretary general, Jens Stoltenberg, left, and Germany’s defence minister, Ursula von der Leyen, at NATO headquarters in Brussels last year.

Francisco Seco/Associated Press

Analysis & Opinions - The New York Times

In Mattis’s Shadow, Acting Pentagon Chief Tries to Reassure NATO Allies

| Feb. 14, 2019

On his first international trip as Pentagon head, Patrick M. Shanahan entered NATO headquarters on Wednesday with a key question hanging over him: Would he be the stalwart ally and buffer against President Trump’s whims that the former defense secretary, Jim Mattis, had been?

Iran Syria missiles

Associated Press

Journal Article - International Affairs

Iran's Syria Strategy: The Evolution of Deterrence

| Feb. 04, 2019

Iran has been a critical player in the Syrian war since 2011, crafting a complex foreign policy and military strategy to preserve its Syrian ally. What have been the drivers of Iranian decision-making in this conflict? And how has Iranian strategy evolved over the course of the war? This article argues that the logic of deterrence has been fundamental not just for shaping the contours of Iran–Syria relations since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but also for determining the overall trajectory of Iranian strategy in the Syrian war. The authors outline Iran's decision-making calculus and divide the country's strategy on Syria after the Arab Spring into four primary phases: 1) a ‘Basij’ strategy to establish local militias in Syria; 2) a regionalization strategy to incorporate transnational fighters and militias in the war effort; 3) an internationalization strategy to incorporate Russia and balance the United States; and 4) a post-ISIS deterrence strategy to balance against the United States, Turkey and Israel. Iran's Syria strategy progressively escalated in response to the possible defeat of its ally and the deterioration of its forward deterrence capacities against the United States and Israel. Today, the potential for direct inter-state conflict is rising as proxy warfare declines and Iran attempts to maintain the credibility of its forward deterrence.