Journal Article - Applied Energy

Cradle-to-gate Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles in China

    Authors:
  • Fuquan Zhao
  • Zongwei Liu
  • Han Hao
| October 2017

Abstract

Electric drive vehicles are equipped with totally different propulsion systems compared with conventional vehicles, for which the energy consumption and cradle-to-gate greenhouse gas emissions associated with vehicle production could substantially change. In this study, the life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle production are compared between battery electric and internal combustion engine vehicles in China’s context. The results reveal that the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a battery electric vehicle production range from 92.4 to 94.3 GJ and 15.0 to 15.2 t CO2eq, which are about 50% higher than those of an internal combustion engine vehicle, 63.5 GJ and 10.0 t CO2eq. This substantial change can be mainly attributed to the production of traction batteries, the essential components for battery electric vehicles. Moreover, the larger weight and different weight distribution of materials used in battery electric vehicles also contribute to the larger environmental impact. This situation can be improved through the development of new traction battery production techniques, vehicle recycling and a low-carbon energy structure.

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For Academic Citation:

Qiao, Qinyu, Fuquan Zhao, Zongwei Liu and Han Hao. "Cradle-to-gate Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles in China." Applied Energy, vol. 204. (October 2017): 1399–1411 .