Useful Background Information

Advancing Nuclear Security: Evaluating Progress and Setting New Goals
March 2014 | Report
Harvard Kennedy School | Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
By Matthew Bunn, Martin B. Malin, Nickolas Roth, and William H. Tobey

"In the lead-up to the nuclear security summit in The Hague, Advancing Nuclear Security: Evaluating Progress and Setting New Goals outlines what was accomplished in a four-year effort launched in 2009 to secure nuclear material around the globe—and what remains to be done....The authors conclude that “all countries with nuclear weapons, separated plutonium, or highly enriched uranium (HEU) on their soil have more to do to ensure these items are effectively and lastingly secured.”  (click here to view)

The Nuclear Terrorism Threat
January 2014 | Presentation
Harvard Kennedy School | Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs 
By William H. Tobey and Pavel S. Zolotarev

In these slides, William H. Tobey and Pavel Zolotarev provide an updated summary of the threat of nuclear terrorism, based in part on the new U.S.-Russian report,Steps to Prevent Nuclear Terrorism. This was presented at the Meeting of the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit ‘Sherpas’, hosted by the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Pattaya, Thailand, on January 13, 2014. (click here to view)

2014 Nuclear Security Summit Resources
March 2014 | Resource Collection
Nuclear Threat Initiative

This Nuclear Threat Initiative website contains extensive resources for the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit including reports, video's, and fact sheet's. (click here to view)

Five Actions for the 2014 Summit
March 2014 | Policy Recommendations
Nuclear Security Governance Experts Group

"At the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the assembled nations should commit to eliminating weak links in the global system and support its continuous improvement with the following [five] actions." (click here to view)

Securing the 2014 Summit: An Interview With Dutch Nuclear Security Summit ‘Sherpa’ Piet de Klerk
December 2013 | Interview
Arms Control Today
Interviewed by Kelsey Davenport and Daniel Horner

"De Klerk spoke with Arms Control Today at the Dutch embassy in Washington on Oct. 31. He described the goals for the upcoming summit, the announcement earlier this year of a 2016 summit, and the planned transfer of responsibility for certain nuclear security activities to the IAEA and other institutions once the summit process ends." (click here to view)

Beyond Nuclear Summitry: The Role of the IAEA in Nuclear Security Diplomacy After 2016
March 2013 | Discussion Paper
Harvard Kennedy School | Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
By Trevor Findlay

Since it became apparent that the nuclear security summits are likely to end with a final meeting in Washington DC in 2016 there has been much speculation―but little detailed analysis―as to what might replace them. One candidate touted as a suitable inheritor of the summits’ mantle is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This discussion paper examines whether and how the IAEA could and should do so, what form its role might take, and how the Agency and the summiteers might prepare for such an eventuality. (click here to view)

The Nuclear Security Summit: Assessment of Joint Statements
March 2014 | Report
Arms Control Association | Partnership for Global Security
By Michelle Cann, Kelsey Davenport, and Sarah Williams

"At the 2010 NSS, countries presented a consensus communiqué and work plan, and in Seoul a second communiqué was released. Countries have also offered individual achievements and committed to efforts to improve nuclear security in their own countries and in concert with other participants through multilateral joint statements. This report, the fourth in a series published by the Arms Control Association and the Partnership for Global Security, details the progress made on the 13 joint statements presented at the 2012 NSS." (click here to view)

Planning for Success at the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit
December 2013 | Policy Analysis Brief
The Stanley Foundation
By William H. Tobey
"The Y-12 incident was not a wake-up call merely for the United States. It and a score of other nuclear security incidents must rouse all states with fissile material to greater vigilance and inform their actions at the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit. These failures in nuclear security must compel actions by the leaders at The Hague in 2014. The need to improve nuclear security remains urgent and real." (click here to view)

The Nuclear Security Summit: Progress Report
July 2013 | Report
Arms Control Association
By Michelle Cann, Kelsey Davenport and Sarah Williams

This report seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the progress states have made to improve nuclear security over the course of the NSS process, drawing specific attention to actions taken since the Seoul summit. It uses the progress reports submitted by participating states at the 2012 summit, statements made to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference, IAEA Nuclear Security Reports, government press releases, and media reports to identify actions countries have taken in support of the summits’ goals. This approach aims to provide a complete record of achievements, but inconsistencies in how and what states report complicate efforts to evaluate progress using open sources. (click here to view)

Endgame for the Nuclear Security Summits
January 2014 | Article
Arms Control Today
By Kenneth N. Luongo

"The upcoming summit in The Hague in March and the subsequent summit in the United States offer an opportunity to eliminate persistent weak links in the regime and improve nuclear security governance. By linking these two events in a strategic endgame, the summit participants can significantly strengthen the existing system and create a platform for continuous nuclear security progress after the series of summits ends." (click here to view)

Strengthening Global Approaches to Nuclear Security
July 2013 | Conference Paper
Harvard Kennedy School | Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
By Matthew Bunn

This paper recommends learning from the much stronger national and international efforts in nuclear safety, and in particular taking steps to build international understanding of the threat; establish effective performance objectives; assure performance; train and certify needed personnel; build security culture and exchange best practices; reduce the number of sites that need to be protected; and strengthen the international framework and continue the dialogue once leaders are no longer meeting regularly at the summit level. (click here to view)

NTI Nuclear Materials Security Index - Building a Framework for Assurance, Accountability, and Action
January 2014 | Report
Nuclear Threat Initiative

"The 2014 Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) Nuclear Materials Security Index is the second edition of a first-of-its-kind public assessment of nuclear materials security conditions around the world. Developed with the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the NTI Index was created (a) to assess the security of weapons-usable nuclear materials around the world and (b) to encourage governments to take actions and provide assurances about the security of the world’s deadliest materials. It has sparked international discussions about priorities required to strengthen security." (click here to view)